Water is a limited resource which needs effective management. Economic growth, population escalation, and ecological pollution occurring in numerous parts of the world are placing huge demands on accessible resources of fresh water and reflecting a "water crisis". Resource supervision, well-organized consumption of the water resources, and water refining are the alternatives to resolve the water crisis. Refinement techniques include conventional techniques that have lasted for more than a few centuries without major modifications, as well as, latest modern techniques. This book consists of numerous topics related to either improving the existing treatment techniques or the latest advanced techniques.